Hafnium

72
Hf
Ryhmä
4
Jakso
6
Lohko
d
Protonia
Electrons
Neutronia
72
72
106
Yleiset ominaisuudet
Järjestysluku
72
Atomipaino
178,49
Mass Number
178
Luokka
Siirtymäalkuaineet
Väri
Harmaa
Radioaktiivisuus
Ei
From Hafinia, the Latin name for Copenhagen
Kiderakenne
Yksinkertainen kuusikulmainen
Historia
In 1911, Georges Urbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues which was shown later to be a mixture of already discovered lanthanides.

Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon in 1922.

Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer were the first to prepare metallic hafnium by passing hafnium tetra-iodide vapor over a heated tungsten filament in 1924.
Elektroneja elektronikuorilla
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Orbitaalirakenne
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Hf
In powdered form, hafnium is pyrophoric and can ignite spontaneously in air
Fyysiset ominaisuudet
Olomuoto
Kiinteä
Tiheys
13,31 g/cm3
Sulamispiste
2506,15 K | 2233 °C | 4051,4 °F
Kiehumispiste
4876,15 K | 4603 °C | 8317,4 °F
Sulamislämpö
25,5 kJ/mol
Höyrystymislämpö
630 kJ/mol
Ominaislämpökapasiteetti
0,144 J/g·K
Esiintyvyys maankuoressa
0,00033%
Esiintyvyys maailmankaikkeudessa
7×10-8%
Electrolytic
Kuvalähteet: Images-of-elements
Electrolytic hafnium
CAS Number
7440-58-6
PubChem CID Number
23986
Atomiominaisuudet
Atomisäde
159 pm
Kovalenttisäde
175 pm
Elektronegatiivisuus
1,3 (Paulingin asteikko)
Ionisoitumispotentiaali
6,8251 eV
Moolitilavuus
13,6 cm3/mol
Lämmönjohtavuus
0,23 W/cm·K
Hapetusluvut
2, 3, 4
Käyttö
Hafnium oxide-based compounds are being introduced into silicon-based chips to produce smaller, more energy efficient and performance packed processors.

Most of the hafnium produced is used in the production of control rods for nuclear reactors.

Hafnium is also used in photographic flash bulbs, light bulb filaments, and in electronic equipment as cathodes and capacitors.
Hafnium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotooppi
Vakaat isotoopit
176Hf, 177Hf, 178Hf, 179Hf, 180Hf
Epävakaat isotoopit
153Hf, 154Hf, 155Hf, 156Hf, 157Hf, 158Hf, 159Hf, 160Hf, 161Hf, 162Hf, 163Hf, 164Hf, 165Hf, 166Hf, 167Hf, 168Hf, 169Hf, 170Hf, 171Hf, 172Hf, 173Hf, 174Hf, 175Hf, 181Hf, 182Hf, 183Hf, 184Hf, 185Hf, 186Hf, 187Hf, 188Hf